Offset Production

Screen ruling

60 lines/cm. Deviations are allowed for laser screening when technically justified. The standard reference is 60 lines/cm. If screens with higher or lower screen rulings are used, then gradation must also be adjusted, as higher or lower dot gains will occur.

Dot gain/ printing characteristics

Dot gains are measured in the 40 % and 80 % patches in the control strip. The desired dot gains according to BVD/FOGRA standards for print proofing and production printing are to be maintained.

Color description

The color description is to be copied in directly on the register mark, according to DIN 16549, Part I: B=black C=cyan M=magenta y=Yellow; special colors are written out. Further descriptions (image No., page number, short title) are indicated separately. Writing on the black leader must be at least 5 mm from the lower edge of the image.


3 mm

Print marks

Like register marks, corner, folding and cut marks must begin at the correct angle and exactly at a distance of 2 mm from the end format. For delivery of individual images, 5 mm. Print marks may have a maximum line weight of 0.1 mm.

Patches and line elements

Full-tone black areas should have a 40 % cyan undercolor. Negative text must be adequately filled in cyan. If backgrounds contain colored text, then the darker ink is to be applied sharply, the lighter ink over- or undercut as required.

Under color removal (UCR)

The maximum total area coverage for the four colors should be between 280 % and 310 % in the neutral image areas. Gray component replacement with UCA (under color addition):
The maximum total area coverage for the four colors should be between 130 % and 250 % in the neutral image areas, which corresponds to a UCA of 10 % to 50 %.

Film masking

This should always be done on the non-emulsion side of the film.


Fog max. image density 0.06


Offset reproductions must have a minimum black density of 4.0. A density of 4.5 is recommended. Dotted lines and screen dots in the image elements must have sharp edges. Contact prints must be made from etched films or films with screen dots. Screen tone values below 3 % cannot be transferred to the printing plate and are therefore not to be used. Screen dots must have sharp edges to prevent transfer losses.

Scope of delivery

Proofs or press proofs for delivery are to be placed into a bag, page-wise or double page-wise and with layout and reproducible masters. Also required in each case is an uncut proof sheet with all copy and color control strips for copying and printing. Smooth, reverse-reading positives, unbent and without scratches or blemishes, are to be delivered as the end film, placed page-wise or double page-wise into a bag with the imprimatur. All originals or first or second copies are to be delivered in a second bag. Safety negatives or intermediate or copy films are to be sent along as well if specifically requested. All films are to be delivered with perforation (Kodak, if possible).


The customer will be given access to data banks if requested.

Paper grade 1

All glossy and semi-matt coated paper from 70 g/m2

Colors Full-tone density 80% 40%
Black 1.90 - 2.00 14% 19%
Cyan 1.50 - 1.60 12% 16%
Magenta 1.50 - 1.60 12% 16%
Yellow 1.35 - 1.45 12% 16%

Paper grade 2

All coated paper from 70 g/m2

Colors Full-tone density 80% 40%
Black 1.80 - 1.90 16% 22%
Cyan 1.45 - 1.55 14% 19%
Magenta 1.45 - 1.55 14% 19%
Yellow 1.35 - 1.45 14% 19%

Paper grade 3

All uncoated paper including pigmented/satin paper

Colors Full-tone density 80% 40%
Black 1.90 - 2.00 18% 25%
Cyan 1.50 - 1.60 16% 22%
Magenta 1.50 - 1.60 16% 22%
Yellow 1.35 - 1.45 16% 22%